thewmatusmoloki wrote:The first steam engine was invented by an ancient greek (maybe,could've been someone earlier!), Heron, I think his name was.
An aeolipile (or aeolipyle, or eolipile), also known as a Hero engine, is a rocket style jet engine which spins when heated. In the first century AD, Hero of Alexandria described the device, and many sources give him the credit for its invention.
Both Hero and Vitruvius draw on the much earlier work by Ctesibius (285Ã¢â‚¬â€œ222 BC). Since it is unknown whether or not Ctesibius himself was the inventor, awarding proper credit for creating the first aeolipile may never be achieved.
Vitruvius (c. 80 BC Ã¢â‚¬â€œ c. 15AD) mentions aeolipiles by name:
"Ãƒâ€ olipylÃƒÂ¦ are hollow brazen vessels, which have an opening or mouth of small size, by means of which they can be filled with water. Prior to the water being heated over the fire, but little wind is emitted. As soon, however, as the water begins to boil, a violent wind issues forth.
Hero (c. 10Ã¢â‚¬â€œ70 AD) takes a more practical approach, in that he gives instructions how to make one:
Ã¢â€žâ€“ 50. The Steam-Engine.
PLACE a cauldron over a fire: a ball shall revolve on a pivot. A fire is lighted under a cauldron, A B, (fig. 50), containing water, and covered at the mouth by the lid C D; with this the bent tube E F G communicates, the extremity of the tube being fitted into a hollow ball, H K. Opposite to the extremity G place a pivot, L M, resting on the lid C D; and let the ball contain two bent pipes, communicating with it at the opposite extremities of a diameter, and bent in opposite directions, the bends being at right angles and across the lines F G, L M. As the cauldron gets hot it will be found that the steam, entering the ball through E F G, passes out through the bent tubes towards the lid, and causes the ball to revolve, as in the case of the dancing figures.
How the UK's first fatal car accident unfolded
By Andrew McFarlane
BBC News Magazine
Mrs Driscoll, circled, was said to be bewildered by the car's approach Almost 4,000 people are killed on the world's roads every day, according to the campaigning charity RoadPeace which is marking National Road Victim Month. So who was the UK's first fatal car accident victim - exactly 114 years ago - and what happened?
There were little more than a handful of petrol cars in Britain when labourer's wife Bridget Driscoll, 44, took a trip to the Crystal Palace, south-east London, on 17 August 1896.
So she could be forgiven for being bewildered by Arthur Edsall's imported Roger-Benz which was part of a motoring exhibition taking place as she attended a Catholic League of the Cross fete with her 16-year-old daughter, May, and a friend.
But as the Times recalled 70 years later, when giving mention to a memorial service for Mrs Driscoll at her local church, hers was the misfortune of becoming the UK's first traffic fatality.
"At the inquest, Florence Ashmore, a domestic servant, gave evidence that the car went at a 'tremendous pace', like a fire engine - 'as fast as a good horse could gallop'," it read.
"The driver, working for the Anglo-French Motor Co, said that he was doing 4mph when he killed Mrs Driscoll and that he had rung his bell and shouted."
The car's maximum speed, the inquest heard, was 8mph but its speed had been deliberately limited.
One of Mr Edsell's two passengers during the exhibition ride, Ellen Standing, told the inquest she heard the driver shout "stand back" and then the car swerved - giving her a "peculiar sensation", according to a contemporary edition of Autocar.
Mrs Driscoll had hesitated in front of the car and seemed "bewildered" before being hit, the inquest heard.
Three of the German-manufactured, French-assembled cars were being demonstrated at the Dolphin Terrace, an area at the back of the palace, according to an edition of local paper the Norwood News published on 22 August 1896.
It reported May Driscoll as claiming the driver "did not seem to understand what he was doing" and that he had zig-zagged towards them.
"The car then swerved off, and [the] witness looked to see where it was, and it was then going over her mother. (Here witness broke down.) Her mother was knocked down, and the car was at once pulled up," the paper reported, in rather equine terms.
However, there were conflicting reports about the speed and manner of Mr Edsall's driving and the jury returned an accidental death verdict.
He had been driving only three weeks at the time and - with no licence requirement - had been given no instruction as to which side of the road to keep to.
The Croydon Chronicle quoted one witness as saying "the machines made a great noise" but that he did not think it would drown out the tinkling of the alarm bell.
The era's matter-of-fact newspaper reports give no hint of public outrage or hysteria at the new menace.
Melvyn Harrison, of historical group the Crystal Palace Foundation, says people would have been simply bemused at the sight of these "horseless carriages".
"It was such a rare animal to be on the roads and, for her to be killed, people would have thought the story was made up," he says.
And as Jerry Savage, local history librarian at Upper Norwood Library, notes: "The Victorians had no real sense of health and safety. They would just sort of accept the death as what they would call a horrible tragedy."
Nonetheless, the National Motor Museum's libraries officer Patrick Collins admits there was "quite a lot of anti-car feeling" in the UK at the time.
"A lot of people didn't want drivers running around the country scaring horses," he explains, adding that there were fewer than 20 petrol cars in Britain at the time.
This was reflected in the rules of the road at the time. To the frustration of early drivers, the nation's first cars were subject to strict safety laws which had been designed for steam locomotives weighing up to 12 tonnes.
Each vehicle was expected to have a team of three in control; the driver, the fireman - to stoke the engine - and the flagman, whose job was to walk 60 yards in front waving a red flag to warn horse-drawn traffic of the machine's approach.
The flag requirement was ditched in 1865 and the walking distance reduced to 20 yards, although speed limits of 2mph in towns and 4mph in the country remained in place.
Mrs Driscoll died just a few weeks after a new Parliamentary act - designed for the new and lighter petrol, electricity and steam-driven cars - raised the speed limit to 14mph, while the flagman role was scrapped altogether.
The coroner told her inquest that he hoped hers would be the last death in this sort of accident.
Little did he know how times would change over the following century, with the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents estimating more than 550,000 people have been killed on Britain's roads since then.
This is the first image/news I have seen of Jenatzy on two wheels...
sk8norcal wrote:Lock wrote:
This is the first image/news I have seen of Jenatzy on two wheels...
how did you find that?
ran across this blog,
http://motorwheeling.wordpress.com/2008 ... an-engine/
The National Museum of Roller Skating website says, "Made by Antonio Pirrello in 1956, these skates feature a 19-pound gasoline motor that is worn like a backpack.
The first recorded motoring competition was in 1894 from Paris to Rouen in which all kinds of improbable cars driven by steam, electricity and petrol engines took part.
The first race proper was in the following year from Paris to Bordeaux and back. In these early days the two main champions of the electric car were the Marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat and the Belgian, Camille Jenatzy.
The Marquis was a founder member of the Automobile Club de France in 1895, and his driver was his younger brother, Count Gaston.
The Marquis built his car, a Jeantaud, and in December 1898, Count Gaston took it to a deserted stretch of road outside Paris near the hamlet of Acheres, between the villages of St. Germain and Constans to make what became the first attempt on the World Land Speed Record.
The timekeepers operated their primitive apparatus in one direction only over a flying kilometre, and were no doubt thankful to be finished on a cold, wet day and to seek shelter.
Count Gaston was told, after due calculation, that he had achieved a time of 57 seconds, giving him a speed of 39.24 miles an hour.
This car, whose thunder was largely stolen by the much better-known "La Jamais Contente", is really entitled to a place in the hall of fame on several counts. It was the first car to hold the World Land Speed Record. It was the first (but not the last) electric car to do so, and also held the record twice.
Count Gaston de Chasseloup-Laubat then re-built and re-bodied the car and took the record
for a third time in 1899. This car took part in, or was in fact the cause of, the three-cornered battle between steam, electricity, and the petrol engine which was fought during the first five years of the motor car and decided what the whole world would use for the next 65 years at least.
Count Gaston made his records over a flying kilometre in one direction only, before there was much control over these attempts. His car was an ugly chain-driven machine in which he sat high off the ground and steered by a vertical handle projecting from the first steering wheel on
record in times when the tiller was universal. It was strictly a sprint machine as the batteries of the day gave him only a short range without recharging.
Of course, we all know that the Act of Parliament was aimed at traction engines, steam rollers, and such like noisy but useful monstrosities, and not at the useful and natty tricycle or any other form of velocipede driven by electricity. The Court of Queen's Bench, however, in their wisdom have decided that tricycles driven by other than animal power do come within the meaning of the Act, and that any person using one except in compliance with the provisions thereof is liable to a penalty not exceeding <Â£10.
Charles " Mile-a-Minute " Murphy, has equipped his bicycle with a decided novelty. It consists of an electric storage battery, the switch being fastened to the steering head, and the wires covering the handle-bars and connecting with a storage battery at the rear of the saddle post. By grasping the wires Murphy claims a sufficient shock is given his arms to penetrate his whole body and give him a sense of renewed activity when needed in a spurt. If the idea should be generally adopted (remarks a contemporary) we should have to add a new set of " shocking " records to the books.
After cannibalizing his girlfriendÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s bike for parts, filleting the frame with a Sawzall and installing electric motors and batteries, Santa Cruz handyman Geoff Bjorgan successfully converted a 1986 Honda motorcycle into an electric, pedal-assist bike.
A NEW LIGHT 0N ELECTRICITY.
A chat with Professor Ayrton, F.R.S.
From Cassell's Saturday Journal.
Electricity is in the air, and half the world seems to be electrically mad. Since the debut of the motor car, almost every topic of conversation - North, South, East and West has had some reference to electricity. Prophets have arisen, and if they do not belie their name, we are going to have electricity in everything. Electric boots to propel our legs, electrical clothes
dusting machines, dummy servants run by electricity - these are a few of the devices which are promised us.
There is some danger, however, in our expecting too much from the mystic current, and when I wrote to Professor Ayrton, the celebrated scientific expert, requesting an interview with him, I had it in my mind to ask him for some definite information on the subject of the uses of
electricity. Professor Ayrton most kindly acceded to my suggestion, and with rare good nature permitted me to question him for a full hour.
"What electricity is going to do depends on a variety of circumstances," the professor replied, in answer to a question as to the future of electricity. "That it appeals more successfully to the public than it did some years ago admits of no doubt. But the progress of electricity has been retarded to an enormous extent by the vast sums which were wasted at the commencement of the enterprise. Many bogus companies with wholly impossible schemes,
with which it was never intended to do any real work, were foisted on ths public, who were robbed wholesale. Then the reaction followed; people regarded electricity with disfavor, and nothing was done for a time. However, the great thing is, we are going ahead at last."
"A lot of people are going about just now advising us to cook our meals by electricity. Do you advise us to respond to their honeyed pleadings, professor?"
"Electricity has no future for cooking, unless it be for very occasional purposes. There are, of course, all sorts of electric appliances for heating water, grilling chops, etc., but none of them is likely to come into general use under present conditions. Some time ago, I made various
experiments with the object of ascertaining the cost of heating water by electricity as compared with that of heating water by gas. Now, the cost of electrical energy, as everyone knows, is from sixpence to eightpence per board of trade unit, which is about the same as one horse-power exerted for eighty minutes. No company in London can legally charge more than eightpence per unit, and in many districts the maximum charge is made. Well, for the purposes of my experiments, I took the cost of the board of trade unit at the low figure of fourpence, and the price of gas at half a crown per thousand cubic feet, and I found that it costs twenty-five times as much to keep water boiling by electricity in an ordinary electrlc kettle as it does by gas - and this, it must be remembered, when fourpence only is charged per unit, a price which has hitherto been almost unheard of in London."
"Then it won't pay to use electricity for any domestic purpose save lighting?"
"Well, not at any rate for general cooking, for if you get the energy at fourpence per board of trade unit, it wouldn't pay you to run your kitchen fire electrically as a regular thing. There are, however, one or two cases where the convenience is so great that for intermittent warming it might be worth while to employ electricity. If a man did not care to have gas in his
room, for instance, he might use electricity for heating shaving water, or a lady might prefer an electric kettle on her tea table to one heated with a spirit lamp. Although the electricity would be more expensive than gas, the whole cost would be so small that few would probably mind paying it. But when you have continuous heating electricity under existing conditions, it is hopeless. "
"I have said." the professor continued, "that to run kitchen fires by electricity would be too expensive; but there is just one other exception which is worth mentioning. When you have a waterfall close at hand, your conditions are favorable to the use of electricity. In this contingency you are not called upon to burn coal. Imagine a hotel near a waterfall, the power of which is running to waste all day. In a case of this kind it might pay you to warm that house electrically. There is the power at hand - you get it free of cost. If you pay nothing for the power you need not mind how lavish you are. You may take it from me that there is no
chance at present of producing heat for domestic purposes economically by electricity."
"What, then, is electricity going to do for us in the near future?"
"What we shall get in the immediate future are underground electric railways. Quite a number of these have already been proposed, and we may look for their development at no great distant date. Electric traction is going to be the big thing. You will scarcely credit it, but there are only eleven electric lines in the United Kingdom at the present time. In the United States there are 10,000 miles of electric tram lines, and up till very recently there were more electric tramways in the city of Montreal than in all France and Germany. This is partly accounted for by the fact that people in our large towns will not stand the overhead trolley wires, and because other systems of laying down electric cables along the lines are so expensive. Now, however, a new system is coming into operation, and we may expect speedy developments."
I now turned the professor's attention to the subject of electric cabs, of which so much is expected.
"I don't think the electric cab has any future," he replied,"that is, unless we have some wholly new invention. No electric vehicle which does not get its power of propulsion from overhead wires or underground conductors can compete with steam or petroleum traction. If I wanted a motor car to-morrow I should buy a steam or petroleum one. I shouldn't dream of getting one whose power was drawn from accumulators."
"You can see my point for yourself. To develop a board of trade unit of energy in a motor car driven by means of accumulators would, after allowing for the wear and tear of the cells, etc., cost about a shilling. If the same work were done by means of coal it would cost something like a penny. You see, the cost of the renewal and repairing of the accumulators, which electric cabs must use to move their wheels, is the very serious obstacle."
"Now as to electric bicycles and tricycles, professor. Are they possible?"
"If you ask me if I can make one, I answer 'Yes.' But if you mean will I use one I say emphatically 'No.' In 1882 I constructed an electric tricycle and I used to run it in the streets near my office in the city during the evening when the traffic was small, and when the police were less imperative about its being preceded by a man carrying a red flag. That electric tricycle was sent over to Paris and it may still be in existence. But nothing will make electric bicycles and tricycles worth using - of course, in comparison with those driven by steam or petroleum. They haven't the chance."
"Before I go out into the gaslight myself, professor, will you tell me if we are soon going to see the end of gas?"
"I do not think it probable that we shall dispense with gas yet awhile. The incandescent burner is a very great rival of the electric light; but though it is not ousting electricity it has to be taken into serious consideration. It is rather curious to note that nothing has done the gas companies so much good as the electric light. About sixteen years ago, when people thought that the electric light was going to extinguish gas for all time, the shares of the gas companies went down to about half their value. To-day the companies are paying bigger dividends than ever. The reason of this is that the standard of illumination has been raised. Immediately people saw the electric light they, of course, wanted more illumination and used
more gas burners."
1888 Fred Kimball
Philip W. Pratt demonstrates the very first American electric tricycle.
PrattÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s e-trike was built for him by Fred M. Kimball of, naturally, the Fred M. Kimball Company. Pratt took the editor of Modern Light and Heat for a spin around Winthrop Square in Boston.
The vehicleÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s 10 lead-acid cells pushed about 20 volts to a 0.5 horsepower DC motor. The whole setup weighed about 300 pounds.
The driver sat above the battery assemblage. Top speed: 8 miles an hour.
However, an electric vehicle was in operation in the East as early as 1888, the brainchild of an obscure yet prolific inventor, Philip W. Pratt. His patents included the rubber chair tip, the rubber crutch tip, rubber heel plugs, machines for making rubberized cloth, and several types of nonskid tires. Mr. Pratt may indeed deserve the title of "father of the American electric automobile." His invention might well have gone unnoticed but for the journalistic professionalism of the editor of a short-lived Boston magazine devoted to the wonders of electricity, Modern Light and Heat. Writing in the issue of August 2, 1888, the editor noted, "We received an invitation last Friday from a gentleman who is giving much attention to electric vehicles--Mr. P.W. Pratt of Boston--to take a ride on an electric tricycle that had just been completed for him by a well-know electrical manufacturing concern of this city."
Power was supplied by "six cells of the Electrical Accumulator Company's storage batteries, weighing all told, 90 pounds and a specially constructed tricycle motor connected to the driving apparatus by chain gearing." The date of this demonstration of Pratt's electric tricycle thus was July 27, 1888. Until an earlier claimant surfaces, that date and Mr. Pratt's name deserve to be added to the record books. Unfortunately, no additional information about this machine appeared in Modern Light and Heat. Nor have any images of this conveyance survived, other than a contemporary artist's sketch. The Pratt tricycle later was shown to the public in New York's Central Park and Atlantic City. Mr. Pratt was negotiating for the licensing of one of his patents when he died in Boston in 1915 at the age of 75. Found in his room at the Hoffman House with an illuminating gas jet half turned on, his death was ruled accidental.
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