Infineon Controller Technical

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Knuckles
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Infineon Controller Technical

Post by Knuckles » Nov 08, 2008 3:22 pm

Updated: February 2009

Infineon Controller Hardware Settings

I am posting this thread as an Infineon controller knowledge base. The purpose here is to assist user’s understanding of the features available on the Chinese-made Infineon digital controller. Please feel free to PM (Knuckles) with discrepancies or technical errors that may be evident in this post.

The Infineon (http://www.infineon.com) Micro Control Unit (MCU) is the heart of the controller printed circuit board (pcb). The MCU currently in use by the Chinese pcb vendor is the XC846 chip. The pcb’s come in 6, 9, 12, and 18 mosfet versions. This thread is particular to the 12-mosfet pcb (although the 18-FET controller is also available). The XC846 MCU and the PWM programming has proven sufficient to drive virtually any motor (including geared motors like the PUMA and BMC) commonly used in electric scooters and e bikes.

· Standard Wiring
Infineon_Wiring.jpg
http://98.131.176.65/endless-sphere/Infineon_Wiring.jpg

· Mosfets
Mosfets are the switches that channel the flow of current for BrushLess Direct Current (BLDC) Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). The choice of mosfet is primarily driven by cost and performance characteristics. As a rule of thumb, more expensive mosfets have a high voltage tolerance and a lower “ON” resistance and are therefore capable of handling more voltage and amperage. The consumer thus has the option to use the most cost effective controller for their specific electric vehicle (EV) application.

Currently, the 12-FET Infineon is available with the following mosfets (of increasing cost) …

· 75nf75 Specifications http://98.131.176.65/endless-sphere/75nf75.pdf
· 80nf10 Specifications http://98.131.176.65/endless-sphere/456 ... 80NF10.pdf (Temporarily Discontinued)
· irfb4310 Specifications http://98.131.176.65/endless-sphere/232 ... FB4310.pdf

In general, the 75nf75 and 80nf10 mosfets are good for 30 Amp controllers up to 72V nominal.
The irfb4310 mosfets are more appropriate for controllers up to a 50 Amp current limit.
4310_FETS.jpg
4310_FETS.jpg (60.14 KiB) Viewed 54607 times
· Capacitors
Notice that there are two 100V 470uf main capacitors across the main battery + and - mosfet leads.
A third 100V 470uf capacitor is located 2/3 rd way along the "mosfet bus" on the "high side" of the current shunt.
These capacitors are essential to reduce voltage spikes to the mosfets during PWM motor control.

btw ... The production runs of Infineon pcb's are Date Stamped. The pcb shown in this image is dated "20080822".
I also verify the mosfets of each controller and measure the shunt value in mOHMs.
new_pcb.jpg
(47.63 KiB) Downloaded 21026 times
· R12
The Low Voltage Cut-off (LVC) circuit consists of tiny surface mount transistors and one capacitor.
This circuit connects to an MCU pin-out so the MCU can detect the battery voltage.
The R12 resistor is about 1.2 kohm and connects from the MCU pin-out to ground.
R12 can be disabled and replaced with a potentiometer to allow any LVC value.
It is critical, however, that the LVC protects the controller from a low voltage condition.
If the voltage to the mosfet drivers and MCU is not steady the controller will be damaged.
R_12.jpg
(20.7 KiB) Downloaded 20858 times
· R44
The R44 circuit contects to the high side of the shunt.
This circuit connects to an MCU pin-out so the MCU can detect the shunt current.
R44.jpg
R44.jpg (45.66 KiB) Viewed 54367 times
· R01(A,B)
The R01 (A & B) are slots for the power resistors. The selection of these resistors is critical.
They drop the voltage down from the battery voltage to a safe value for the LM317 voltage regulator.
During controller operation, the current thru these resistors is 65 ma (0.065 amps).
Each 100 ohm of resistor value will drop the battery voltage by 6.5 volts.
The choice of resistors is selected by the choice of LVC to prevent controller damage.
R01AB.jpg
(28.6 KiB) Downloaded 20740 times
· R6
The R6 resistor is a bridge (shunt) across the LM317 V(in) and V(out).
It is provided to cap the voltage drop across the LM317 to no more than 40V.
The choice of this resistor is critical because it provides the voltage "window" of the battery.
If R6 is too small the voltage window will be too small. If R6 is too large the LM317 can be damaged.

· LM317
The LM317 on the pcb is configured as a voltage regulator with V(out) = 12 volts.
Small capacitors near the LM317 reduce voltage spikes in the 12 volt output.
This feeds the 12 volt bus on the pcb. The 12 volt bus powers that mosfet drivers.
According to specification the voltage drop across a LM317 should not exceed 40 volts.
The controller LVC should never be set so low that the 12V bus drops below 12V.

It should be noted, however, that the R6 resistor “relieves” the heat load from the LM317.
If R6 is removed, all 65 milliamps of current will flow thru the LM317.
If the voltage drop across the LM317 is 15 volts then it will generate 1 watt of heat.
If the voltage drop across the LM317 is 30 volts then it will generate 2 watts of heat.
This heat will cause the LM317 to shut down since it has internal thermal protection.
There is no heat sink on the LM317.

But when R6 is installed, it will draw some of the 65 milliamps of current away from the LM317.
Using R6=660 ohm, a 6.6 V voltage drop across R6 will pass 10 milliamps of current.
The LM317 is now only passing 55 ma.
A 13.2 V voltage drop across R6 will pass 20 milliamps of current. LM317 now passing 45 ma.
A 19.8 V voltage drop across R6 will pass 30 milliamps of current. LM317 now passing 35 ma.
A at 40 V voltage drop, R6 will pass all 65 milliamps of current. LM317 is now passing zero current.

But a high voltage drop across R6 will also cause the 12V bus to rise above 12 volts.
The 12V bus can climb as high as 15V or even 16V.
The 5V bus can climb as high 6V.

· 7805
The 7805 is a fixed 5 volt regulator and feeds the 5 volt bus on the pcb.
The 5 volt bus feeds the MCU and the throttle and motor hall sensors.
Voltage_Regulators.jpg
(46.45 KiB) Downloaded 20665 times
· Shunts
The latest Infineon pcb is fitted with a consistent shunt.
The standardized shunt value is approximately 3.8 mOHM.
M_Shaped_Shunts.jpg
M_Shaped_Shunts.jpg (66.84 KiB) Viewed 54127 times
· RECOMMENDATIONS
I recommend the following resistor settings for the Infineon controller.
These values will ensure safe controller operation for the voltage range indicated.

R6 = 2 x 330 ohm (2W) = 660 ohm (4W) on all controllers.
100_100_660.jpg
(45.57 KiB) Downloaded 20585 times
OR ...
R6 = 1 x 680 ohm (3W) on all controllers.
Image

Nominal Battery Voltage = 24V
LVC = 20 volts
R01(A,B) = bypass
Maximum Safe Operating Voltage = 50 volts

Nominal Battery Voltage = 36V
LVC = 30 volts
R01A = 100 ohm (2W)
R01B = 100 ohm (2W)
Maximum Safe Operating Voltage = 60 volts

Nominal Battery Voltage = 48V
LVC = 40 volts
R01A = 180 ohm (2W)
R01B = 200 ohm (2W)
Maximum Safe Operating Voltage = 70 volts

Nominal Battery Voltage = 60V
LVC = 50 volts
R01A = 200 ohm (2W)
R01B = 330 ohm (2W)
Maximum Safe Operating Voltage = 80 volts

Nominal Battery Voltage = 72V
LVC = 60 volts
R01A = 330 ohm (2W)
R01B = 330 ohm (2W)
Maximum Safe Operating Voltage = 90 volts


-K
Last edited by Knuckles on Feb 07, 2009 5:04 pm, edited 42 times in total.
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Re: Infineon Controller Technical

Post by Knuckles » Nov 08, 2008 3:22 pm

Infineon Controller Software Settings
The Infineon controller is very versatile and can be used in a variety of lightweight EVs.
It has several programmable features that extend beyond the needs of most e bikers but may come in handy to folks in certain e bike applications.

The flash program software (right click "Save Target As...") ... http://98.131.176.65/endless-sphere/Par ... signer.exe
And a demonstration file (right click "Save Target As...") ... http://98.131.176.65/endless-sphere/Demo.asv
You may need to add some COM PORT files for your particular PC OS (Richtx32.ocx & MSCOMM32.OCX).
These are here also (right click "Save Target As...") http://98.131.176.65/endless-sphere/Richtx32.ocx & http://98.131.176.65/endless-sphere/MSCOMM32.OCX
These need to be copied into the C:\WINDOWS\system32 directory for the Parameter Designer.exe to work properly.

Image

· Flash Cable
Work In Progress

Image

· LVC
Work In Progress

· Current Limit
Work In Progress

· Speed Controls and Reverse
The Infineon controller allows for a variety of Speed Settings.
Percentage values for the Speed Settings are chosen by pull down menus in the “Parameter Designer” software.

The “Speed 1, 2 and 3” settings allow for values from 30% to 120% of full speed.
The “Limit Speed” setting allows for values from 50% to 99% of full speed.
The “Converse Speed” (reverse) setting allows for values from 15% to 70% of full speed.

PLEASE NOTE: The throttle ALWAYS controls the motor speed.
The various speed settings simply set the MAXIMUM for wide open throttle (WOT).

There are also two Speed Modes available …
0: SWITCH MODE
1: CYCLE MODE

These settings are activated by jumping specific contact points of the pcb to ground.
The contact points are “SL”, “X1”, “X2”, and “DX3”.

Image

0: SWITCH MODE …
When “0: SWITCH MODE” is chosen as the mode of operation, the Infineon controller will default to the speed value selected for “Speed 2%”. This is the value the controller “sees” when none of contact points (SL, X1, X2, or DX3) are activated or used. This value is typically set to 100%. It is believed that values over 100% may increase speed by using a “phase advance” feature but values over 100% may not function well with higher rotor rpm (geared) motors. Of course reverse will not work with geared motors with an internal freewheel (like the Bafang PMGR).

SL …
(0: Switch Mode) When the “SL” contact point is “jumped” to ground (when SL is connected to ground) then the programmed value for “Limit Speed%” overrides the default “Speed 2%” setting. If the SL switch is opened (disconnected from ground) then the controller returns to the “Speed 2%” setting.

X1 …
(0: Switch Mode) When the “X1” contact point is “jumped” to ground then the programmed value for “Speed 1%” overrides the default “Speed 2%” setting. If the X1 switch is opened then the controller returns to the “Speed 2%” setting.

X2 …
(0: Switch Mode) When the “X2” contact point is “jumped” to ground then the programmed value for “Speed 3%” overrides the default “Speed 2%” setting. If the X2 switch is opened then the controller returns to the “Speed 2%” setting.

DX3 (Reverse) …
(0: Switch Mode) When the “DX3” contact point is “jumped” to ground then the programmed value for “Converse Speed%” (reverse) overrides the default “Speed 2%” setting. The motor will now run in the REVERSE DIRECTION and the maximum reverse speed will be limited by the value chosen in the software. If the DX3 switch is opened then the controller returns to the default (forward) “Speed 2%” setting.

POSSIBLE EXAMPLE of “Switch Mode” being used on an e bike or e trike …
Imagine a 4-position DIAL Switch on your handlebars with a separate ON/OFF switch to the dial ground lead (the ON/OFF ground switch could be hidden).

Image

Ground switch OFF:
Dial switch does nothing and the Speed 2% setting (100) is the default.

Ground switch ON:
Dial Position 1: (X1 goes to ground) the Speed 1% setting (30) is active (Grandma Mode).
Dial Position 2: (SL goes to ground) the Limit Speed% setting (60) is active (Casual Mode).
Dial Position 3: (X2 goes to ground) the Speed 3% setting (120) is active (Escape Mode w/ WOT Boost).
Dial Position 4: (DX3 goes to ground) the Converse Speed% setting (15) is active (Mello Reverse mode).

1: CYCLE MODE …
Work In Progress

· Shunt Measurement
Work In Progress

· Chip Flashing
Work In Progress

· Adjustable LVC Alternative
It is possible to have a safer adjustable LVC when combined with the "ANY VOLTAGE" transistor modification

Step 1) Install Transistor Mod
Step 2) Flash Controller using LVC = 30.5
Step 3) DO NOT Remove R12 (leave it installed)
Step 4) Run a LVC tap wire (R12 jumper) outside of the controller case

The LVC can now be increased WITHOUT OPENING UP THE CONTROLLER CASE

If no jumper across R12 and ground then LVC stays at 30.5V
If jumper across R12 and ground with 4.3k then LVC becomes 39V
If jumper across R12 and ground with 2.0k then LVC becomes 49V
If jumper across R12 and ground with 1.3k then LVC becomes 59V

Or use a 100k Trim POT to jumper across R12 and ground to set an LVC to any value above 30.5V
If the trim POT (or resistor across R12 and ground) is broken or disconnected the LVC reverts back to 30.5V
If the LVC tap wire goes to ground (accidentally) the controller shuts off at all voltages (but is not damaged)

Image

Work In Progress
Last edited by Knuckles on Dec 18, 2008 10:05 pm, edited 32 times in total.
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Re: Infineon Controller Technical

Post by Knuckles » Nov 08, 2008 3:22 pm

Infineon Controller Custom Modifications

· LVC Potentiometer
The use of a potentiometer to change the LVC is well established.
However, there is a danger involved with this modification.

If the end user sets the LVC POT too low then the current thru the "ignition" electronics
can drop below 65 ma at low battery voltages.
This CAN and WILL cause the MCU and mosfet drivers to malfunction causing the mosfets to short out.

Even when using the "transistor modification" (this mod replaces the standard power resistors),
The LVC is still required to protect the controller (by shutting it off) from a very low voltage condition.

It is very easy for a user to set the LVC too low and blow the controller under a low voltage condition.
I am reluctant to provide this specific modification for this very reason.
If used properly, however, it can still be extremely useful.

The LVC potentiometer is installed by first disabling the R12 resistor from ground.
A small hole can be drilled thru the board that will cut the ground connection.
Then two wires are soldered to the board and a 5K potentiometer is attached to these wires.

Image

· Power Transistor Modification
As previously indicated the Infineon controller uses power resistors to drop the voltage down to a safe value
for the LM317 voltage regulator. One of these power resistors can be replaced by a transistor.
Unlike a resistor, a transistor will pass the required 65 ma of current over a wide range of voltages.

A transistor's output voltage is controlled by an appropriate zenor diode.
The output voltage will be constant and slightly lower than the zener value even when
the input voltage is far greater than the zener value. If the input voltage is lower
than the zener value the output of the transistor (at 65 ma) is about a constant 3V drop from the input.
A resistor is used to control the current thru the transistor.

Image

The simple schematic of the transistor circuit (above).
The transistor and 10k resistor before soldering (below).
(I have since decided a 4.7k resistor is even better but 10k still works.)

Image

The zener diode is installed from the under side of the pcb.
It is wired to the transitor circuit thru a small hole near the power resistors.

Image

I typically will use a TIP3055 NPN transistor to create the "ANY VOLTAGE" Infineon Controller.

Nominal Battery Voltage = 36V to 72V
LVC = 30 volts
R01A = Transistor (60V zener)
R01B = 200 ohm (2W)
Maximum Safe Operating Voltage = 84 volts

· CA Connector and Calibration
The Cycle Analyst (CA) Direct Plug (DP) connector (controller side) is a 6-pin JST SM female connector.

Image

Wiring details of the CA DP unit on a Crystalyte controller are illustrated here ... http://www.ebikes.ca/drainbrain/CA_taps_20A.jpg

For the Infineon controller the 6-pin connector wiring is as follows ...
1) Vbatt
2) Digital Gnd
3) Analog Gnd
4) ISense
5) Hall
6) Ebrake

Suitable connection points (for the 6-pin connector) to the Infineon controller is shown in the pictures below

Image

Image

1) Vbatt - This is the battery (+) voltage supplied to the CA unit. The CA only draws a few millamps of current.
The CA should draw full battery voltage (current) from the switchable "ignition" wire AND NOT the main positive (thick) power wire.
The CA unit draws power from this tap and also measures the battery voltage.
A fuse or poly fuse is reccommend on this connection point.

2) Digital Gnd - This is the battery ground (-) for the CA unit.
It can tap into ground anywhere along the gound bus or other ground wires.
It should NOT tap into the high side of the controller shunt, however.

3) Analog Gnd - This connection should be as close to the ground (-) shunt side as possible.
It is used in conjunction with the ISense to measure the millivolt drop across the shunt.
It can be attached from the top or the bottom of the pcb.

4) ISense - This connection should be as close to the high (+) shunt side as possible.
It is used in conjunction with the Analog Gnd to measure the millivolt drop across the shunt.
It can be attached from the top or the bottom of the pcb.

Note: The mV drop across the shunt is an indirect measurement of the current thru the shunt.

5) Hall - This connection is to the amplified hall signal (the blue wire).
It provides a signal for every hall transition (of one motor hall sensor) during rotor rotation.
The CA unit uses the number of hall transitions (per time) to calculate rotor rpm.

6) Ebrake - This is the same connection as the switch-type handle bar ebrake.
IT IS NOT the high voltage ebrake wire used in conjunction with brake light systems.
This is used by the CA unit to increase the LVC above the pre-programmed LVC of the Infineon.

Calibration Wire - The calibration wire is provided to pass a known current thru the shunt with the controller off.
The main (thick) battery (+) is NOT CONNECTED during CA calibration. Only the thin (+) ignition wire is supplied power.
In fact, the voltage supplied to the thin (+) ignition wire is only used to power the CA unit.
A separate (and different) voltage may be used to pass a known current thru the calibration wire.
During CA calibration all power sources share a common ground.

A bank of resistors can be used to provide a steady current.
I use 8 - 1ohm 10W resistors (2P4S) to create a 2ohm (80W) resistor.

Image

Using a 12V power source (battery) this provides about a steady 6 amp current.
The current passes from bat (+) thru a multimeter, thru the resistor bank and thru the shunt to ground.

Image

Now it is quite simple to adjust the CA setup program to alter the CA shunt value.
The CA shunt value is adjusted until the CA unit reads the same current as the multimeter.

A copy of CA manual is provided here ... http://98.131.176.65/endless-sphere/Tem ... Manual.pdf

Set RShunt:
The Cycle Analyst is calibrated by programming a resistance value for the
current sensing shunt. If you are using a known shunt resistor, then as a first
estimate this value can be programmed in mOhm. This will usually get the meter
accurate to within 3%. For highest accuracy, the shunt value should be calibrated
so that the displayed amperage matches that of a known current reference,
which may not be exactly the same as the mOhm rating on the resistor. If the
current is reading too low, then the shunt resistance value needs to be
decreased, and visa versa. Stand Alone Cycle Analysts, and Direct Plug-in units
that are sold at the same time as a controller, are all pre-calibrated to the shunts
with which they were sold.

Allowable values in High Range mode: 0.728 to 9.999 mOhm

Allowable values in Low Range mode: 0.0728 to 0.9999 mOhm

If a shunt value is input that falls below this range, then it will be reset to the
lowest permitted number.



-K
Last edited by Knuckles on Dec 18, 2008 10:07 pm, edited 20 times in total.
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Re: Infineon Controller Technical

Post by Knuckles » Nov 08, 2008 3:40 pm

Infineon Controller: ES Links

My First ES Post Chinese Connection https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... f=2&t=4109

The Original Shenzhen (ecrazyman) Controller Information Thread https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... f=2&t=4282

Infineon XC846 72V 45 Amp Controller Thread https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... f=2&t=5713

18 Mosfet Infineon Controller https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... f=4&t=7440

brushless motor dilema https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... f=2&t=5672

Work In Progress
Last edited by Knuckles on Jan 19, 2009 5:13 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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Now this is not the end.
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But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.

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Re: Infineon Controller Technical

Post by Knuckles » Nov 18, 2008 11:07 am

Infineon Controller w/ Bafang PMGR (and other) Motors: ES Links

PUMA USA https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... =11&t=7563

Help finding a solution to Bafang gear stripping https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... f=3&t=7031

Bafang Front and Rear Hub motors- Built Wheels https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... f=9&t=6388

Brushless Geared hubmotors: definitive list & details https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... f=3&t=4892

SHENZHEN Controller Installation Stories https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... f=2&t=4370

SHENZHEN Controller Bafang Geared Motor Testing https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... f=2&t=4482

BLDC Controller Wiring https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... 484#p81888

Work In Progress
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It is not even the beginning of the end.
But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.

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