Horses of Iron

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Re: Horses of Iron

Post by Lock » Jan 30 2011 2:38am

HA! Thanks for that sk8norcal... I've never heard of that Messerschmitt product before! Found a nice fan site (German language) here:
http://www.mokuli.de/mokuli/index.htm

The designer at Messerschmitt seems like a pretty cool dude... Herr Fend:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Fend
Image

Before he joined Messerschmitt and they took his designs to the next level he managed to turn out 250+ of the Fend Flitzer:
FEND_Flitzer_101_1950.jpg
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:shock: :D
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The Earliest Electric Railway 1839

Post by Lock » Jan 30 2011 8:00am

From The Electrical World
October 18, 1880

The Earliest Electric Railway.

It is probably a fellow-countryman of our own to whom we must look for the first experimental efforts toward electric traction. Late in the autumn of 1835 Thomas Davenport, a blacksmith, of Brandon, Vt., who had, with the enterprise characteristic of American inventors, worked through the patent office a broad claim covering the general principle of applying electromagnetic motors to machinery, turned his hand toward the building of an automobile machine and set up a small model which was exhibited in Springfield, Mass. Nothing, however, came of this spasmodic effort, and the first electric locomotive of any practical dimensions was the invention of one who to-day is perhaps the oldest living electrician, Robert Davidson, of Aberdeen, Scotland. Before passing to the very interesting experiments which he made, a word regarding his life may not be out of place. Robert Davidson was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1804. As a young boy he evinced great interest in scientific pursuits, taking up, as was the habit of that time, specially the subject of chemistry. While engaged in his chemical studies he devised the form of galvanic battery which was afterward used in his locomotive. At that time the energies of every one who had any pretence toward scientific tastes were turned to electricity and magnetism, and like others young Davidson bent his energies in this direction, taking up astronomy also as a pastime, which was a favorite recreation of his during many years.

About 1839, in the period when the talents of Jacobi had been turned toward the propulsion of a boat by an electric motor, Davidson built his electric locomotive. He was filled with the idea, which, perchance, he may yet live to realize, if his days should be prolonged a few years more, that the electric motor could take a place for ordinary traffic on the railroads. He endeavored vainly to call the attention of the railway companies to the importance of his invention, and, failing in this, he turned from the study that in the hands of others has led to such prodigious results. The locomotive built by Davidson was, with other motor devices, exhibited at various points in England and Scotland during the three years subsequent to its construction and awakened keen interest wherever it was shown. Its final fate is a curious comment on the temper of the times. After several successful trips had been made on the Scottish railways, and the machine was finally being taken home to Aberdeen, it was found in the engine house in Perth one morning broken by some malicious hands almost beyond repair. There was a strong feeling among the railway engineers that the "Galvani" was destined to supersede the machines with which they were familiar, and the evidence pointed to this as the reason for its destruction.
Davidson_1839.jpg
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Fig. 1 is a fac simile of a hand-bill describing the electromagnetic exhibition as it was shown by Davidson at various points in the United Kingdom. This particular handbill, printed, as will be seen, by an electric motor, was issued for the exhibition at the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, in 1842, just before the locomotive came to grief in the way we have mentioned. At the head of this poster is a representation of what was then the first electric railway ever constructed, for the " Galvani" was of no mean size, and, as we have seen, was given trial trips in actual railroad work where it attained a speed as high as four miles an hour. Its length was 16 feet, with a breadth of five feet, and its total weight was no less than five tons. It was operated, of course, by batteries placed in the locomotive car. Forty cells were in regular use, of a type always claimed by Davidson to be his own invention, although the claim was disputed by Mr. Sturgeon and Mr. J. Martin Roberts. The element consisted of plates of iron and of amalgamated zinc immersed in diluted sulphuric acid. In the locomotive battery the plates were each 12x15 inches, and the internal resistance must have been therefore very small.

The current from this battery was delivered to a motor of a very rudimentary, but tolerably effective, description, consisting of two cylinders of wood, fitted to the axles of four wheels. Eight electromagnets were placed at the bottom of the car in two opposite rows, and on each of the cylinders were two sets of iron bars parallel to the axles. These bars presented themselves as the cylinders rotated to the poles of the corresponding electromagnets opposite them. The electromagnets were divided into two sets, each one being supplied from a separate battery. At each end of the axles, just inside the driving wheels, were the commutators which made the necessary changes in the polarity of the magnets. In the "Galvani" shown herewith the power is apparently applied to the locomotive by a belt passing from the driving wheels of the motor to those of the locomotive proper.
DavidsonMotor_1839.jpg
The detail of the form of motor used by Davidson is well shown in Fig. 2, which is taken from a cut in the Penny Mechanic, of Sept. 23, 1843, whence also is derived the description of its action annexed. In Fig. 2, A and A' are two electro-magnets of the staple or horseshoe pattern made of the best wrought iron. Around these magnets is a copper wire covered with some non-conducting material, as cotton, silk, etc. In the largest of Mr. Davidson's engines a number of wires are arranged in one continuous bundle around which cloth or canvas is stitched. One end from the wire of A is soldered to the wire of A', which wire is again soldered to the connecting screw b. The other end of the wire from A is soldered to the socket of spring d and that of A' in like manner to the spring e. A cylinder of wood with a steel or iron shaft through its ends is arranged to turn freely in the bearings f f. Into this cylinder are inserted and fixed over it the pole pieces of iron C D E, which during the revolution must pass as closely as possible to the poles of the magnets, but without touching them. F is a fly-wheel attached to the cylinder, and G is the brake by which a galvanic current from the battery is led on and cut off alternately. It consists of a cylinder of wood, ivory or other suitable non-conducting material on the circumference of which is laid in a thin ring of brass with three projections in the direction of its axis. The ivory or wood has also three projections which fill up the spaces between the brass, and all being accurately turned together in the lathe a perfect cylinder is left, composed externally of a ring of brass extending half its length, and the remainder composed of three equidistant portions of ivory alternating with brass. The binding screw c is connected through the clamp g to the spring shown by the dotted lines in the lower part of the figure and presses upon the annular portion of brass, being always in contact with it. The springs dd, ee —one for each magnet— have knife edges at their free ends which press upon the portion composed alternately of brass and ivory. As these springs form a part of the metallic current necessary for the passage of the electricity, it follows that when they are not resting on a metallic surface no current can pass. The sets of wood between the portions of brass are so arranged that when the keeper rests opposite to the poles of the magnet the spring belonging to this magnet just rests on the ivory, consequently the current is broken and the magnetism ceases. At the same moment the opposite spring comes in contact with the metallic portion of the brake, and its magnet resists its effect and attracts the keeper next to it when the process is repeated. In the engraving the keeper D is nearly opposite A', the flywheel revolving in the direction of the arrow. The brake G, revolving with the cylinder and fly-wheel, has just passed one of its metallic portions from beneath the knife edge of the spring e, and another comes into contact with d. The current is therefore cut off from A', in which no magnetism now exists, and is led on to A which possesses its full power. The electricity is passing from the binding screw c along the clamp g to the spring through the annular portion of the brake to the projection on which the spring d rests, along which it travels to the wire coil around A, thence through the connecting wire to the binding screw b.

There are three dead points in this machine where the power acts equally in both directions. This is at the moment where the current is cut off from one magnet and led into the other. If, therefore,. it should happen to stand at this point when connection is made with the battery, the machine would need starting by hand. In any other position it will start of itself in the same way as would a steam engine, and when once in motion the momentum of the fly-wheel carries it past this point. Three, five, or seven keepers may be used, or four, six, or eight magnets, or there may be an odd number of magnets and an even one of keepers. It is scarcely necessary to mention that the power is increased by increasing the number of either. This description of the Davidson motor puts its actual method of operation in the clearest possible form.

The operation of the " Galvani" attracted much attention from the press of the period. The London Morning Advertiser, of Dec. 7, 1842, remarks in this connection: "Such being the progress of experiments, it is not being too sanguine to expect that some lucky genius' will at no very remote period, ascertain a means of adapting this extraordinary and easily developed power to supersede steam on railways, at the printing press, in vessels, at mills, etc." This opinion is evidently shared by the editor of the Aberdeen Banner, who remarked a couple of years previously : "That this power will at no distant date supplant steam, both in fixed and locomotive engines, will be apparent to any one who takes the trouble to scrutinize its capabilities; a power capable of being increased to any extent, occupying much less space, no fuel needed, no room for or risk of explosion." If either of the editors who made these prophetic remarks half a century ago should chance to be, like the inventor, still in the land of the living, the gigantic but somewhat tardy development of the power they so thoroughly appreciated ought to be a source of no little satisfaction to them. Aside from the locomotive—which, we may remark, was given a practical trial on the Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway, where it successfully dragged the weight of six tons—Mr. Davidson also planned an electric carriage, and built a small model on which two persons were carried along the rough wooden floor of a large room. Such was, in brief, the history of the first electric locomotive of practical size that was ever built. Its fate has already been mentioned. The development of electrical traction, so earnestly predicted by some of those who saw the "Galvani," has been slower than they anticipated, but now, after the lapse of 50 years, has taken almost the place they predicted for it. A few years more may see the prophecy completely fulfilled. All in all, it is a bit of history which the electrician of to-day may well ponder over as his imagination turns to the possibilities of the next half century.

Its final fate is a curious comment on the temper of the times. After several successful trips had been made on the Scottish railways, and the machine was finally being taken home to Aberdeen, it was found in the engine house in Perth one morning broken by some malicious hands almost beyond repair. There was a strong feeling among the railway engineers that the "Galvani" was destined to supersede the machines with which they were familiar, and the evidence pointed to this as the reason for its destruction.
This blew me away... Seems the Luddites weren't only smashing cotton mills and threshing machines! They also trashed the worlds first EV...

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David Lionel Goldsmid-Stern-Salomons

Post by Lock » Jan 30 2011 5:06pm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Lion ... n-Salomons
Sir David Lionel Goldsmid-Stern-Salomons, 2nd Baronet (born January 28, 1851 – 19 April 1925) was a scientific author and barrister.
Nice article here:
http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-enter ... 07255.html
LIKE A HORSELESS CARRIAGE
The earliest motor car wasn't so much a car, more a landau with the horse removed. A hundred years ago five such models gathered at the first Motor Show in Tunbridge Wells. Jonathan Sale looks back
Jonathan Sale
Sunday, 28 April 1996

Motoring is in fact rather more than 100 years old. Britain's first motor show, or "Horseless Carriage Exhibition", took place in the autumn of 1895. Instead of the 600 cars expected on this year's London-Brighton run, five vehicles, including a fire engine, rolled up at the Agricultural Show Ground in Tunbridge Wells. While one of the vehicles seen at the 1995 Motor Show, the Thrust SSC, can break the sound barrier, the horseless carriages in 1895 could break the speed limit only because it then stood at 4mph.

"We would today call it a display," explains Malcom Jeal, Veteran Car Club historian, "rather than a show of cars on stands. They drove the vehicles round the field and then had a run up the road - at more than 4mph, but the police didn't mind."

This was England's answer to the Paris motor show held in the Champs Elysees during December 1894; entitled Exposition Internationale de Velocipedie et de Locomotion Automobile, it worked out at practically one word in the title for each of the nine vehicles.

Why did Tunbridge Wells find itself the home of state-of-the-art motoring? The answer is that its mayor, Sir David Salomons, was a wealthy polymath who used his fortune in the service of technology. The grounds of Broomhill, his nearby estate, contained a private observatory. His electric lighting installation cost over pounds 10,000. The owner of elegant horse-carriages, he hoped that the new horseless variety would free the poor creatures from the drudgery of having to pull people over the public highways.

"I am deeply interested in our English manufacturers producing a carriage which shall eclipse all others," he is quoted as saying in The Sketch, a copy of which magazine survives in the Tunbridge Wells Museum. He must be revolving in his grave now. Ironically, the car which he himself exhibited was produced by Messrs Peugeot of Paris.

Like most 1895 vehicles, the pounds 270 model was designed after the fashion of the means of transport it was replacing; it resembled a horse-drawn carriage from which the horse had been removed. Early in that century, Jane Austen's heroines would not have looked out of place in this morocco- leather-finished automobile, except that they would not have had to put up with the primitive petrol engine thudding away out of sight at the back. With its detachable hood, it would count today as a convertible but was described then as a "vis-a-vis", which meant that its occupants faced each other: the two passengers at the front travelled backwards and Salomons, steering from a slightly raised seat at the rear of the vehicle, peered between them at the road ahead.

This was, apparently, a much safer arrangement than it sounds and the three-and-a-quarter horsepower engine gave an average speed of a modest 8mph; even with the driver's welly hard down, the maximum was only 15mph. There was petrol in the tank for up to 200 miles - not that anyone would have casually undertaken so ambitious a journey.

It was only three months since the Hon Evelyn Ellis made the first drive of any length in Britain; accompanied by Frederick Simms, he made a 56- mile trek from Hampshire to Buckinghamshire. The actual vehicle he drove was also in the Tunbridge Wells show, according to Malcolm Jeal (though the motoring correspondent of The Sketch did not mention this feat of endurance). Now in the Science Museum, it was a Panhard et Levassor left- hand-drive model with, like most of the five vehicles on display, a Daimler engine made under licence.

Ellis, the first Englishman to pass the driving test (he took it in Paris 40 years before it was introduced here) was also the owner of another exhibit, the fire engine. Lacking as it did any ladders, it was really a mobile pump and better suited to watering the croquet lawn than fighting any major conflagrations.

The other two exhibits were not cars at all. The motorised tricycle, made by Count de Dion and Georges Bouton, carried sufficient fuel for a six-hour run and could touch 14mph with the wind behind - on the level. Up hills, though, the rider had to puff away at the pedals.
Salomom_1895.jpg
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The final exhibit was a "steam horse", a sort of tiny railway engine without the rails. It was attached to a landau (a four-wheeled, horse- drawn carriage) which it pulled like a tug with a liner. "It gave forth a good deal of steam and smoke at times, snorted noisily, and dropped burning cinders," observed The Sketch.
Tunbridge_Wells_1895.jpg
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The idea of a plug-on car to upgrade a carriage never caught on. Motor shows, however, did. Later that year the Stanley Cycle Show included Ellis's Panhard and four other motor vehicles of one sort or another; it was held under cover, in the Agricultural Hall, London. In May 1896 the first trade show took place at the Imperial Institute, also in London; proudly entitled "the International Horseless Carriage Exhibition", it featured ten different makes of cars and motorcycles. By the turn of the century there were at least three annual shows in the London area alone.

Sir David Salomons proved a trendsetter once again in setting up the Self Propelled Traffic Association, a group of motoring enthusiasts dedicated to the scrapping of the 4mph speed limit (2mph in towns) and the red flag which had to be carried by a man walking in front of every automobile. After their inaugural meeting in December 1895, the self-propelled folk lobbied hard, sending out 56,000 campaigning letters - without the benefit of word processors to churn them out automatically.

It worked. In November 1896 the oddly named Locomotives on Highways Act (alias the Red Flag Act) was shunted into a siding and the limit raised to a soaraway 14mph. They promptly celebrated by holding the first London- Brighton run, which began with a ceremonial tearing up of the red flag. The Association then cruised gently to a halt and soon amalgamated with the Automobile Club of Great Britain, newly formed by Frederick Simms, which later was born again as the Royal Automobile Club or RAC.

The Automobile Association had its jump-start in 1905, evolving from one of the cycle patrols set up to warn turn-of-the-century tearaways of police speed traps. Charles Jarrott, a Panhard importer, organised a team of crack pedallers but later channelled his energies into rather more legal activities, becoming the leading light of the AA's first committee.

The pioneer motorists needed all the back-up they could get. Around the time of the first motor show, a Mr Koosen of Southsea had problems starting his brand-new motor. Following the instruction manual - in fact, a short letter from the manufacturers - he rotated the flywheel. The engine failed to roar into life. He summoned local engineers but none could locate the fault. After ten days of immobility, someone suggested that there was supposed to be a magic liquid you poured into the tank ... could it be petrol?

Sir David Salomon's far-sightedness went beyond the mere mechanics under the bonnet. He was the patron not just of motor shows but also of electric-powered vehicles. He regretted that the existing batteries were too heavy and too weak.

"However," he explained, "I am making experiments, and hope before long to overcome these difficulties, and to place an electric carriage on the road that will prove completely efficient." Motoring at the end of the nineteenth century would thus experience "a bloodless revolution", he declared.
Unfortunately, at the end of the twentieth century we are still waiting.
This article explains the *real* reason for Sir David giving up on his electric trike:
http://www.canterbury.ac.uk/salomons-mu ... ioneer.asp
D.L. Salomons first built his own tricycle in 1874. It was powered by an enormous battery but ‘damage to clothes necessitated it being given up'.
Understandable maybe `cause Sir David was a pretty dapper guy...
Salomons.jpg
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Anywhoo... looks like a new winner in the Worlds First Ebiker contest... David Salomons in 1874 8)

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Re: Horses of Iron

Post by Lessss » Jan 31 2011 12:37am

Image
Give me nuclear batteries I say!!

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Re: Horses of Iron

Post by Lock » Jan 31 2011 2:04am

HAHA! Love the way the passenger is hangin' over the side... From that PopSci article "Because of the cheapness of operation..."

Yah, never mind the cheap thrills of "dart(ing) in and out among the larger vehicles" :D

Reminds me of that 1925 monotrace posted earlier:
Image
Watt is it about these vehicles that gives them the giant honkin' power steering???
loCk
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Re: Horses of Iron

Post by sk8norcal » Jan 31 2011 2:23am

after looking at it again,

I think that PM article might be wrong and its actually a monotrace...
Last edited by sk8norcal on Jan 31 2011 2:25am, edited 1 time in total.

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Lock   10 GW

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Re: Horses of Iron

Post by Lock » Jan 31 2011 2:24am

Man, I posted here earlier about Thomas Parkyns losing his court case in 1881 where the judge concluded his trike was indeed a "locomotive" under British law:
http://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewto ... &start=288

...and here we are 130 years later still no more enlightened:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-so ... e-12215326
18 January 2011
Segway motor scooter rider loses legal challenge
A man has become the first person in the UK to be successfully prosecuted for riding a Segway scooter on a pavement.

Philip Coates, 51, used his Segway motor scooter to travel from his home in Cudworth to Barnsley.

His lawyer had challenged the prosecution's definition of the Segway as a motor vehicle after he was charged under the Highways Act 1865.

But a judge fined Mr Coates £75 and ordered him to pay £250 in costs.

At Barnsley Magistrates' Court on Tuesday District Judge Michael Rosenberg ruled that the Segway was a motor vehicle under the meaning of the law and, therefore, it was an offence to ride one on the pavement.
(Balance of article in the link)
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Solo Electra 1972

Post by Lock » Jan 31 2011 7:40am

Europes first electric moped... sort of...
Solo_Electra_1974.jpg
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Yeah Baby!

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Re: Horses of Iron

Post by sk8norcal » Feb 01 2011 10:45pm

here's a solo electra with a lynch motor,

http://homepage.hispeed.ch/Spridget/sol ... lectra.htm

Image

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Re: Horses of Iron

Post by Lock » Feb 01 2011 10:57pm

BIT of an improvement over the original
Solo_Electra_1974a.jpg
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:D
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Raleigh Vektar 1980's

Post by Lock » Feb 03 2011 12:43am

Not a true ebike, but from the BMX Halls of Fame one of the coolest electronic bikes ever made...
RaleighVektar_1985.jpg
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The onboard computer features elapsed time, distance travelled, speed and maximum speed achieved. Optional add-ons include a Computer Module accessory pack (trip meter, speedo) Radio Accessory pack (3 preset AM stations) and Sound Synthesiser with 8 built in digital sounds, paddle, shifter and speakers.
RaleighVektar_1985a.jpg
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There is a Youtube video with embedding disabled that shows watt these bikes looked and sounded like:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tBrN1sLZVik
:shock: :lol: 8) 8) 8)
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Tabernas Desert Run 2004

Post by Lock » Feb 10 2011 9:21pm

In 2004 artist Simon Starling built his own ebike to travel 41 miles across the Tabernas Desert in Spain. The bike was powered by a portable fuel cell and Starling used two bottles containing 800 liters of compressed gas that produced 600 ml of pure water over the trip.
SimonStarling_2004.jpg
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Re: Horses of Iron

Post by blueb0ttle2 » Feb 10 2011 9:29pm

Since when do artists have the money to do experiments like that? :P Is there more info on his bike? It sounds like a pretty interesting machine.
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Re: Horses of Iron

Post by Lock » Feb 10 2011 9:48pm

blueb0ttle2 wrote:Since when do artists have the money to do experiments like that? :P
Hehe... Would ya believe that he won the 2005 Turner Prize (£25,000!) for this and other "art" projects:
http://www.artinfo.com/news/story/9061/ ... ner-prize/

He used the water produced by the fuel cell to paint a picture of a cactus. Folks on ES just need to get more creative - do something "artsy" with their spent batteries... :lol:
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Re: Horses of Iron

Post by blueb0ttle2 » Feb 10 2011 10:00pm

Lock wrote:Folks on ES just need to get more creative - do something "artsy" with their spent batteries... :lol:
loCk
hmm. maybe we should have an ebike art section. (There'd be to many sculptures with rusty parts, though)
I'm actually halfway decent as a cartoonist. Maybe I ought to make an ebike-related cartoon for this forum.
To the drawing board!
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Sarah L.Gossard

Post by Lock » Feb 11 2011 12:05am

I think I am in love again... this Scooter Grrl patented her own electric scooter... in 1931:
Gossard_1931.jpg
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Joe O'Neill, General Engines, Electric Mobility Corp. aka Ra

Post by Lock » Feb 11 2011 1:06am

Joe O'Neill patented a kit for power-assist in 1975:
'Neill_1975.jpg
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Dang that looks like an RC friction drive :lol:

By 1977 he was assistant to the President of General Engines when he was interviewed at the Electric Vehicle Expo in Chicago:
ObserverReporter_1977.jpg
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"I built my first electric bicycle in 1939 with a six-volt starting motor and battery," O'Neill said. "I kept it on a week and I was very unhappy with it. It was all too heavy. When the gas crunch came along in 1974 I dug that old idea out and as far as electric bikes are concerned we're No.1 in the world."

O'Neill said his company has since sold about 15,000 units, including the power packs, bicycles and tricycles.

O'Neill said his firm, General Engines Co., has sold about 2,000 tricycles. In 25 states, he said, no drivers license or helmet is required. The motorized tricycle costs about $395.

O'Neill's Electroped is a conventional bicycle equipped with an electrical drive unit on the front wheel.

"When I developed this I didn't want to destroy the bicycle itself, so to speak," O'Neill said. "You can release a handle on the device which disengages the drive motor from the bicycle and the bicycle is still a bicycle."
Here's an ElectroPed from 1979:
http://www.evalbum.com/146.html
ElectroPed_1979.jpg
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And an ad from 1980 for one of their trikes:
GeneralEngines_1980.jpg
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Finally, from here:
http://www.nj.com/gloucester-county/tow ... mobil.html
Head of Sewell's Electric Mobility honored
Published: Thursday, November 12, 2009, 9:20 AM Updated: Thursday, November 12, 2009, 9:33 AM
By Bob Shryock/Gloucester County Times

Michael J. Flowers has found absolute truth in the time-tested adage, “Necessity is the mother of invention.”

Principal and chairman of Electric Mobility Corp., an international company headquartered in Sewell, Flowers has filed three patents in the past 18 months in what he calls “the most prolific inventive period of my life.”

With revenue off due to a struggling economy, and significant cuts in Medicare permissible for power mobility devices, Flowers found the need to step forward. Two inventions are in production (Rascal Balance and We Go) and the third is in the development stage. He has six patents altogether.

Image
Michael J. Flowers (left) with Alex Magoun, at the New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame. Flowers received the hall's "Special Award" for one of his inventions, the foldable 'Personal Mobility Vehicle,' at a black tie awards dinner last month at Stevens Tech in Hoboken.

The West Deptford resident in May was nominated to the New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame by Dr. Thomas Strax, vice president and medical director JFK Johnson Rehabilitation Institute and professor/chairman of the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Strax called Flowers “an amazing individual concerned with all the needs of the population he serves — the elderly and those with physical disabilities.” Strax is a long-time consumer of Electric Mobility products.


Flowers received the hall’s “Special Award” for one of his inventions, the foldable “Personal Mobility Vehicle,” at a black tie awards dinner last month at Stevens Tech in Hoboken.

“A real honor, pretty neat,” Flowers says. “I think back to 1998 when I was honored as Entrepreneur of the Year in a contest sponsored by Ernst & Young. That was special because it was a business award which I considered my company deserved the credit for. This special award, for contributions to human welfare, is much more personally gratifying.”

A graduate of Bishop Eustace Prep (1972) and Rutgers University (1976), Flowers was general manager of Pedalpower Electric Bicycle, a Division of General Engines Co., a start-up family business, from 1976-82. Pedalpower, an electric bike motor that attached to bicycles and adult tricycles, was the company’s first product. By 1980, sales soared from $50,000 annually to $3 million.

CycleChair, designed in 1981 by Flowers and his late father, Francis W. Flowers Sr., was a big-wheel personal electric vehicle popular with the elderly.

In August 1982, Electric Mobility Corp. was spun off from General Engines. A year later Mike Flowers and his father developed the Rascal, fulfilling the needs of the disabled both indoors and outdoors. Soon the Rascal became the top-selling scooter in the electric wheelchair market.

As the company’s reputation grew, requests poured in for an indoor vehicle that could more easily access small kitchens and bathrooms. Mike Flowers in 1988 invented the Rascal ConvertAble, the industry’s first combination personal electric vehicle for outdoor use and electric wheelchair for indoor use.

Flowers invented the Rascal AutoGo, a powerfolding electric travel scooter, in 2002, challenging his engineers to develop a folding scooter so clients could store or transport their vehicles without bending, stooping, or lifting parts.

Image
Michael J. Flowers rides a Rascal We Go 250, a powered transport chair, the latest new product for Electric Mobility and The Rascal Company. Photos provided
John Benjamin Flowers, an electrical engineer and Mike’s grandfather, had the Flowers invention genes first.

“J.B. had numerous patents and taught my father to always think in three dimensions,” Mike says.

His father started and operated 10 businesses, three of which Michael and his brothers own.

Michael’s son Jordan represents the fourth Flowers generation to inherit the invention gene. His patent for “portable electric trunk lift” was designed so the company’s consultants or consumers could install the lift themselves.

Rascal We Go 250, a powered transport chair unveiled recently, is the latest new product for Electric Mobility and The Rascal Company and among its most revolutionary. It costs $1,975 (introductory price) and allows consumers to “leave your manual wheelchair at home.” Features include automatic electromagnetic braking, comfort seating and tight turning radius.

Flowers also says business is expanding in the European market. It’s Electric Mobility’s milestone anniversary 25th year abroad.

Active in the community, Flowers has been on the board of directors of the Cerebral Palsy Center since 1998 and spent 10 years as a board member of the United Way of Gloucester County. Married for 32 years, he and Susan are the parents of two, Jordan and Nicole.

© 2011 NJ.com. All rights reserved.
Nice to see the Flowers and Electric Mobility Corp./Rascal doing so well... it'd be nice to hear how Joe O'Neill is doing too...
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Somebuddy in Japan loves their Boreem...

Post by Lock » Feb 13 2011 3:25am

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Olli Erkkila makes beautiful things...

Post by Lock » Feb 13 2011 5:47am

http://www.ollierkkila.com/
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Wild Wild West

Post by Lock » Feb 17 2011 2:10am

http://www.hiwheel.com/custom_work/index.htm
Image
The Motorized Penny Farthing
Built for the Movie "Wild Wild West" and sold by Sotheby's to The Barber Vintage Motorsports Museum in Birmingham, Alabama.
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125 Jahre Automobil - Bertha Benz - Der Benz Patent-Motorwag

Post by Lock » Feb 19 2011 1:50am

The Benz gas trike from 1888:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vVTKCcWgUac
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Leonardo Da Vinci Spring-powered trike (1495)

Post by Lock » Feb 19 2011 1:56am

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E. Durandelle 1892

Post by Lock » Feb 27 2011 12:36pm

From Eureka - Inventors Forum
April 16, 1892

(poorly translated from the original French)
The Electric Cars

M. Graffigny devised a very simple and very light primary battery, which Fig. 1 and 2 show the details: C is the positive electrode consists of 8 retort carbon rods, encased in a metal trim, crimped on a plate of ebonite, the negative electrode is a zinc pencil D, not amalgamated. The liquid, a solution of chromic acid in sulfuric acid at 26 ° Baume, is enclosed in a vase B terne or very thin glass; A shows an element of experience in action. The current is taken from terminals ad hoc potential is 1 volt 5 for a rate of 3 to 4 amps.
Eureka_Fig1.jpg
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Eureka_Fig2.jpg
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A battery of 12 elements of a pint as that shown in plan and perspective, fig.2, weighs, loaded, 10 kilos. 500 and develops 6 kilogram-meters for about for 4 hours and a half hours. That is to say that a liter of liquid assets can provide a total of 18.000 kilogrammetres and it takes 16 liters to produce a horse-hour (270.000 kilograms.) Wear of zinc is 90 grams per liter, or about 1400 grams for hour-horse. The cost of a liter of liquid produced by the methods of the inventor is 0.20 cents or so.

The first trial included the start of a regular tricycle with Fig. 3 and 4 show the assembly.
Eureka_Fig3.jpg
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A battery of 24 items had been placed on the body back, right, and was operating a motor of 10 kg of highly-placed left. Transmission is by means of a gear reduction related to the pinion keyed on the axis of the dynamo, and a chain passing over the wheel of the differential movement of the drive wheels. Thus, this tricycle could either be powered by pedals powered by the rider, or by, electric motor, it was enough to change our driving force, placing a particular string on the wheel of the tricycle.

Testing, the speed of the vehicle having been found insufficient, the rolling resistance coefficient obtained when the inventor thought to increase the driving force in increasing the number of batteries. The seat of the tricycle was removed, and the pedal system, and replaced by a box enclosing all the mechanism and pattern similar to Fig.5. They put 36 and 48 elements successively by batteries 12 in tension, and results are reported below.
Eureka_Fig5.jpg
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The weight of the vehicle in the road was as follows:

Tricycle without the saddle and pedals .... 18 kilos. 400
Chest, head, apron, etc......................... 14 " 850
Stack of 36 elements loaded................... 31 " 750
Engine, transmissions, gears................... 15 "
Accessories, supplies, tools...................... 7 "
Weight of the driver.............................. 63 "

...........................................Total. . .. 140 kilos.

The tests took place on the roads department of the Somme, bordering the workshops where the car had been built. The average speed obtained was 20 kilometers per hour. The ramps were climbed using a simple shift in the pace of 7 kilometers, and speed on the descents, reached almost 50 miles, with only half the battery in action. But it was at the expense of stability, the center of gravity is quite high, with several falls and various accidents machine were the result of this speed disorderly. The power of the current was measured at the beginning of 22 volts and 10 amperes for 17-pounds per second on the tree. After five hours, the work lowered to 5 kilogram-meters, insufficient force and requiring the reloading of the elements.

Fig. 6 shows the layout of the mechanism of the car. A cell is the winch, the dynamo-motor B, and C is the transmission system, the differential motion D, C and E accessories.

It was said that the battery Graffigny was just changing the battery commander of Fox, it is a mistake, there's a big difference between the two models, and the learned Mcudon officer had not yet announced the construction of generator power of his balloon at a time when our colleague had already constructed cell elements, in which chromic acid was substituted for potassium dichromate, which is less energetic. Moreover, long ago that we know the cell chromic acid and its derivatives, and all forms of batteries can be transformed into dichromate chromic batteries.

As for the car Starley, built in Coventry by the manufacturer of Psycho-cycle, it only gave inferior results, although its cargo of 140 kilos. accumulators. The total weight of the vehicle, including two passengers, was 500 kilograms.; speed not exceeding 12 miles an hour for a limited time, so it was insufficient and Mr. Starley has abandoned its trials pending the invention of a lighter battery or a battery more powerful than existing ones.

Conclude by saying that we know in the Paris suburbs a person with a very light trike, moved electrically. The generator is a battery, charged for the rest through a stack of copper sulphate which is the most economical of all batteries. This is perhaps the best solution of the problem!

E. Durandelle engineer.
This is the second mention I have seen of Starley also experimenting with ebikes...
tks
Lock
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Re: Horses of Iron

Post by Lock » Feb 27 2011 2:18pm

From the journal of The Alliance. Federation of mechanics, drivers, drivers in France. Professional body of the General Union
June 1897
(poorly translated from the original French)
ELECTRIC TRACTION

Traction is certainly one of the questions as to the agenda at this time. We will report on two papers on electric traction, which were made recently at the International Society of Electricians in Paris.
Mr. Lasnier was first made a presentation on the electric traction system that is used on the lines of the Madeleine in Courbevoie and Neuilly-Levallois. The trams are in service and two months' work since. The network has three lines, one of the Madeleine in Courbevoie-Neuilly (6.7 km), the second in the Magdalene in Courbevoie (6.6 km), and third of the Madeleine in LevalJois. The traction system is the traction batteries with charging stations at the ends and the load is very fast it takes a few minutes. The generating station consists of three Babcock and Wilcox boilers, giving 1800 kg of steam per hour to kilograms per square centimeter, three Willans steam engines of 200 horsepower at 460 revolutions per minute, each directly operating a dynamo Brown 4-pole 200 amp 660 volts.

The switchboard is divided into three distinct parts, each devoted to a machine. Each part includes circuit breakers fuses, a bipolar switch, ammeter Hartmann & Braun, a rheostat excitement.

Feeders made across the table are the number r of 5, including 2 for charging the deposit and lighting, and 3 lines at terminals. The charging stations are located at the ends of the lines we discussed above. The first two have a section of 150 square millimeters and the third a section of 250 square millimeters. At the start of each line on the switchboard are a toggle switch and a switch for automatic circuit breaker, and
circuit breakers and an ammeter. Various positions load is a terminal, which contains a table containing a circuit breaker, a switch and a device announcing the end of the load. Just at the time of the stop, the driver put the son of his wing in communication with the son of the station
load and wait for the bell works, the end of the load is indicated.

The cars are very comfortable, they offer 52 seats. Accumulators Tudor, numbering 200, with a total weight of 3,600 kilograms, were placed under the seats. The body was established by the house of David and Desouches Pantin. Electric motors are two in number, a power of 25 hp each, four poles with carbon brushes. A special controller can perform all operations necessary for starting and stopping the car. At the end of the load on each car are located
small fans that we have to drive to work outside the gases.

The results so far have been very satisfactory maintenance of the batteries has been almost nil, the cars were made by key 6,000 km journey. There were expenses of 860 watt-hours per car-mile, and 2.591 kilograms. of coal per car-mile. The electrical performance of batteries has increased to 71 100.


Mr. E. Hospital then makes a communication on electric cars. He reminds us that in 1881 he issued the notice that the batteries are improving themselves and could be used in electric cabs. This prediction has been realized in part and it is likely that in a year, there will be electric cabs in service. He then made a study of the power that is attributed to the horse. This power is variable, however, can be counted as a horse can produce 500 watts and 3 kilowatt-hours per day. If we relate this power and energy to weight, there is only one watt per kilogram, and six watt-hours per kilogram. These figures are certainly below those that can give an accumulator. For the horse, one rein only for guidance. A horse may give the push, a tensile load of 100 kilograms, its speed is very variable.

Regarding electric cars, we can not rely on batteries to power them, and ME Hospital proposes to give these cars the name accumobiles.

The mechanism do these cars is very simple: just an energy source, ie batteries, a motor and a direction. These wings employ all known progress today, the axle broke, the ball, the tire. In this connection Mr. Hospitalier recalls recent experiments of M. Michelin tires on and shows the advantages of the tire. The batteries have made great progress today. In 1881, there were 0.6 watts per kilogram a few years later, we got 2 watts per kilogram, and 12 watt-hours per kilogram. In 1897, the accumulators provide Fulmen per kilogram. 30 watt-hour output of 1.5 watts per kilogram, 25-watt-hour output of 5 watts per kilogram and 20-watt-hour output of 10 kilograms per Walts. Regarding the duration of the batteries, it would be necessary to follow special experiments. In summary, we can say that in 1881 it was 1000 kilograms accumulators to produce a kilowatt, and 100 kilograms to produce one kilowatt-hour in 1897, it takes 200 kilograms to produce one kilowatt and 50 kilograms to produce one kilowatt-hour.

The electric motors also makes great progress. In 1881, their performance was just 60 per 100, and weight of 30-40 kilograms per kilowatt. In 1897, the yield reached 80 100, and their weight is down to 15 or 20 kilograms per kilowatt. Electric motors have the advantage of automatically providing a torque which increases as the speed decreases, they are self regulators. It is not the same for oil engines that provide a constant motor torque.

The main advantages of electric cars are: security, lack of weakfish, no jarring, stop mechanism during the outage, no heat, no odor, cleanliness, simplicity of construction, ease of starting and Stop.

All cars today offer quality roughly equivalent to the point of elegance, economy and buying.

The disadvantages of electric cars are the following: we need a factory for battery charging, motor weight and battery is high, yet in an ordinary car must also count the horse's weight is not low. The cost is quite high. It also accused of using electric cars of the acid, but this liquid is placed in sealed batteries.

With regard to recharge electric batteries, we can adopt three solutions:
1 The fast charge station.
2 The replacement of batteries after discharge.
3 The charge overnight.

The fast charge station would be a bit difficult, especially if there were a large number of cars. Replacement batteries provide difficulties. It seems that the load during the night would be the best solution. He would then have 44 to 45 items that load on distribution lines at 110-120 volts. The burden would be almost automatic. This would probably power companies a fee of 0 en. 40 a kilowatt-hour.

Finally it was suggested that various other systems for electric cars. Among the main, we mention the system of assembling all the system Heilmann on a wing, the use of engine oil, low-power operating a dynamo to maintain the battery charge. Finally, we can also use mobile kilowatt-hours. We buy boxes giving the kilowatt-hour cars.

Mr. E. Hospital then reviewed the major aircraft built. In 1881, M.Trouvè had built an electric tricycle, various wings were also built by Mr. Ayrton in 1882 by Magnus Volk in 1887 and 1888, Mr Carli in 1893, by P. Chine of Armenlières by Mr. Jeantaud in 1894, In 1894 and 1895, various studies have been made in America by MM. Morris and Sallom. In 1897, Mr. Krieger has built a car which has already been discussed. Add to these the various wings wing Riker of New York, cut power Darracq, the omnibus Ward of London, etc..
One may ask what is the energy needed to start. MM. Morris and Sallom conducted various experiments in this regard. They have found a car with a weight of 900 kilograms., 2 seats, wallslonne spend 83 kilometers at a speed of 8 km / h, 81 watt-hours per ton-km at a speed of 19 km / h and 95 watt-hours per ton-km at a speed of 32 kmh. Therefore after about 100 watt-hours per ton-kilometer. A car weighing 1 tonne containing 400 kilograms. accumulators; we can get 60 km races. This will be a very good path length.

The cost of the load will be about 3 to 4 fr. per charge. Indeed in the previous case for 8 kilowatt-hours help, we must allow 10 to the load. The maintenance and depreciation amounted to 3 also Fr. per day, or about 1,000 francs. per year. Altogether we can therefore count the expenditure from 7 to 8 fr. per day for a journey of 60 miles a day.

To make a fair comparison should take into account the savings on feed, disease of horses in the stable etc..

In conclusion, M, E. Hospital said that the cabs and canopies are electric on the eve of taking in practice an important place. He wishes that Paris continues to be the hell of horses and become the earliest possible accumobiles paradise.
J. LAFFARGUE
Amusing to read the same arguments about charging options today as over 100 years ago.

l0Ck
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