http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2 ... -transport
Research on urban transport refers to all passenger and freight transport within built-up areas, including journeys starting or ending in a conurbation. Most journeys are less than 15 kilometres. The main elements of urban transport are motorised private vehicles, public transport, non-motorised transport (cycling and walking), service vehicles, and last mile freight transport.
Under "See projects", (currently) 610 results found...
(So, so far, 610 ways to employ bureaucrats? All aboard!)
Project : TRIP - E-TOUR - Electric Two-Wheelers On Urban Roads
Funding: European (5th RTD Framework Programme)
Duration: 01/2000 - 12/2002
Background & policy context
Motorised traffic is the main source of pollution in most European cities. Especially for passenger transport, a modal-shift towards two-(and three-) wheeled vehicles can be a crucial part of the solution to improve these aspects, because they require less space and use less energy. In this respect, bicycles are of course the best solution for personal transport (apart from walking), since they are absolutely clean and silent, but this means of personal
transport is not widely used all over Europe. Motorised two-wheelers, motorcycles, scooters and mopeds, can provide solutions related to congestion and parking space but not necessarly to environmental problems. In some cases use of these vehicules may cause worse environmental problems than those caused by private cars.
The E-TOUR project has been set up to demonstrate, evaluate and promote the advantages of electric two-wheelers as a substantial contribution to sustainable mobility in urban areas.
In total more then 1300 electric two-wheelers (almost 700 e-bikes and more then 600 e-scooters) have been introduced and tested in the 10 sites.
Etour Final Report.pdf (1417 Kb)
http://www.transport-research.info/Uplo ... Report.pdf
(PRODUCED BY Ton Vermie, City of Rotterdam, Public Works, Environmental Policy Department)
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE APPLICATION
First in line is the necessary product improvement of the electric two-wheelers themselves, this concerns not only the vehicles, but most importantly their batteries. For both electric bicycles and electric scooters the development of a more reliable and better performing battery could really cause a breakthrough for this type of vehicles for a larger market share. However, the price of e-bikes and e-scooters will remain an obstacle, if a substantial reduction is not foreseen. This concerns mainly the price of the batteries, which seem to be the determining factor for the whole vehicle
price. Although better and more reliable batteries will basically have a higher price when produced in the same numbers, better products may lead to substantial higher sales, which can lower the overall prices.
Better insight in user needs is crucial for new e-bike and e-scooter developments, although it might already be obvious that daring but functional designs are needed for a large scale market introduction. Dealers can play an important role by improving their involvement, for example by introducing more rental promotions.
For e-bikes, new developments should also be leading to products with a high emotional added value (daring but functional designs), otherwise the market share will only stick at a very small part of the population, who are really in need of power assisted cycling. Also the very positive health effects when using power assisted electric bicycles should be wisely exploited. For specific niches, like postal services and municipal maintenance further development of power assisted three-wheelers is a must.
For e-scooters, developments for specific niches like courier services and meal deliveries (pizza and other meals) can be of great importance for showing the public these alternative transport means. These developments are already started in the Netherlands (Designer Springtime in co-operation with OXYGEN Benelux) and were presented at the final E-TOUR workshop on 16 December 2002 in Rotterdam.
The public authorities, whether they are local, regional, national or European, will have to play an important role in these developments and should emphasise their desire for a future with clean vehicles, by introducing beneficial incentives for buying as well as using these clean and silent vehicles. In this respect, most users would be very happy when they could enter areas, which are, or should be closed for ICE vehicles (ban on filth & noise), for example city centres and other environmentally sensitive areas.
In particular small islands are a perfect setting for the use of electric two- and three-wheelers, since these can not be entered by vehicles from the outside, making it easier for local authorities to have the courage to allow only these transport modes on their roads.
Although public recharging stations are not the first necessity for electric bicycle users and most electric scooter users, general introduction of electric vehicles is nevertheless delayed by the fact that public recharging stations and service facilities are not widely established. In this respect, the general actions undertaken by the project partner CITELEC, in order to create a future market for electric vehicles, are and will remain of great importance.
CITELEC, the European Association of cities interested in the use of electric vehicles (EVs), was founded on February 2nd, 1990 under the aegis of the European Community. The association now unites over 60 member cities in various countries.
CITELEC and its members are studying the contribution of EVs in order to solve their traffic and pollution problems. CITELEC's main tasks are;
to inform cities about performances and characteristics of EVs
to help cities with the deployment of EVs and give user-training
to accompany the realisation of infrastructures for EVs
to organise test demonstrations with EVs in urban traffic, e.g. the "12 Electric Hours"
to perform tests and assessments of EVs in the European market
to partake in actions to study and demonstrate EVs and hybrid vehicles in European cities
There is still the possibility that hydrogen / fuel cell technology might inhibit the extensive use of battery electric two-wheelers. But especially for urban rides, battery electric two-wheelers can still play an important role in future, providing that battery technology is further improved. The two technologies are not that different, since electric propulsion is a common feature in both. It is only the energy storage (hydrogen versus battery) that provides a choice in the future, but for the near future battery electric two-wheelers are already available and further developed. Normally these vehicles are not intended for long distances and in that respect a small but efficient battery pack will be sufficient enough.
The dissemination activities regarding the follow-up of the E-TOUR project will be continued by the concerned partners from the project. Especially the partner network-organisations CITELEC and ISLENET will have to play an important role in those activities, but this goes also for the affiliated European two-wheeler branch network organisations COLIBI/COLIPED and ETRA and for the EUROCITIES transport related networks ACCESS and POLIS.
The website -www.etourproject.org- will remain on line, and the project will certainly be presented at future relevant conferences and events.
"First in line is the necessary product improvement of the electric two-wheelers themselves, this concerns not only the vehicles, but most importantly their batteries."
First in line??? How about fewer trips and shorter trips? (Hopping rider and vehicle on pubic (sp?) for longer trips?