Safeway used to allow me to wheel my whole bike in the store, back when I just had DayGlo Avenger as a "normal" bike but with basket-racks on front and rear. But one day I was shopping and was told to take the bike outside, not allowed inside, and they weren't all that nice about it. I forget the reasons they did that, but problaby had kids riding their bikes around inside or something. Since that day they've had a sign on the entrance "no bikes in store". Oddly enough they still haven't banned kids on skates or skate-shoes, who speed thru aisles crashing into people and merchandise, causing all sorts of mayhem every time I've ever been there.
(if someone complains, they usually just say "but they're just kids"
The Kmart around the corner from me here used to have a shopping-cart corral at the building face that doubled as a bike rack. I went by the other day and noticed it is gone, and now the only place to lock bikes to is the pipes runnng down the wall from the roof and the lighting. Many are 3-4" diameter and appear to be metal (cast iron?), and all have a gap behind them large enough to pass at least a thick cable between them and the wall, so they would at least work. Some are right next to the entrance. But no actual bike rack.
Safeway in the other direction from me has a bike rack, but conveniently it is on the side of the building that gets it's doors locked up after 8pm, and where there is little foot traffic to keep meddlers away. Most often I lock mine up to the no-parking signs nearer the door that does stay open.
The only other place to lock them to (other than the cart corrals in the parking lot, or the light posts out there) is the columns that hold up the awnings--they're too big around for me to even touch fingers between hands if I put my arms around them, so longer than your average cable (although I have one I made that will do this length).
Fry's a couple miles north has a good one near the bank night drop and where the employees take their smoke breaks. I don't appreciate the smoke, but since there are people there every few minutes, I'll live with it for the bit of security it provides.
So many places around here that do have racks have them out of sight of any windows or doors, so they're worse than useless; one restaurant (no longer around) used to have one IN the garbage bin enclosure wall. I guess since that door stays closed, if you didn't know it was there it would be a good deterrent to the casual thief wandering upon bikes to do harm, but since I suspect many of them "stake out" particular places, they'd know about it, and since it's enclosed no one would even know they were doing stuff to the bikes in there unless they went in. Plus you could go in there to lock up or retrieve a bike, and get assaulted by someone waiting behind or in the garbage bins, and again no one would know it was happening unless they heard you (unlikely where it was at, behind the building).
But a lot of places do have useful lockups. Just not enough. Oddly enough, some of the places that over the years have promoted bikes and riding to eliminate car use the most not only don't have racks, they dont' have anything else nearby that could be used to lock one up! (Computer City, who provided a very small paycheck incentive for riding instead of driving, never had a rack, and officially didn't allow bikes to be brought into the store or put in the breakroom/etc. Fortunately the managers never had a problem with it in reality, but I was the only one that rode--everyone else either walked/bused in or had to park behind the complex (where theft and vandalism was rampant)).